this is from memory and a generalization of what i understand and ponder thus far...
our bodies (n particular the human body) is designed to convert food into energy. the sources of food are categorized in 3-4 groups; carbohydrates, protein, fat/triglycerides, cellulose/fiber. eventually, though via different metabolic pathways, all of the carbs/sugars are broken down into glucose, which is the base sugar the body converts into energy via several enzymatic processes. the protein and fat metabolism take a different route but all food sources eventually end up at the electron transport chain.the kreb cycle. this process (with the exception of red blood cells which have no mitochondria) is activated in the mitochondria and specifically the mitochondrial double membrane. as each of the primary 3 pathway have some unique enzymes and interventions that the others may not have, our bodies are designed to adjust to function well on any traditional diet. whether a fat and protein rich traditional diet, a traditional carb rich diet or a traditional equitable combination of both (traditional protein and fat and traditional carb diet) either of these are quite compatible with the healthy human physiology.
this is a little snippet from the boston university adloase page...
The Expression and Physiological Roles of Aldolase Isozymes
Three isozymes of aldolase have been identified in vertebrates . These isozymes are encoded by three distinct, but related, genes that are derived from a single ancestral gene . The three aldolases are expressed in a tissue specific manner. In mammalian embryonic tissues, aldolase A is the primary isozyme, while in birds and amphibians, aldolase C serves as the primary embryonic form . In the adult organism, aldolase A is found in most tissues, with especially high concentrations found in the muscle tissue . Aldolase B is found mainly in the liver, the kidney cortex and, to a lesser extent, in and small intestinal mucosa . Aldolase C is found in the brain, nervous tissue , and smooth muscle [109,114].
Though the kinetic parameters are different amongst the isozymes (see Table of kinetic parameters), they are consistent with their physiological roles. Aldolase A’s turnover number is fifty-fold higher toward the glycolytic substrate Fru 1,6-P2 than aldolase B and at least five-fold higher than that of C. The turnover number of the B isozyme towards fructose metabolism substrate, Fru 1-P, is two to five-fold higher than the turnover numbers of aldolases A and C. Furthermore, the Km of aldolase B toward the two trioses (G3P and DHAP) makes it kinetically well suited for its role in gluconeogenesis (See Table). Aldolase B demonstrates an equal activity with Fru 1,6-P2 as it does with Fru 1-P. Aldolase C exhibits catalytic properties intermediate to those of the A and B isozymes. Not only can these three aldolases be distinguished by their catalytic characteristics; each isozyme demonstrates unique electrophoretic, chromatographic, and immunological properties .
in view of my heterogenous symptoms complaints including from childhood, i have to wonder if based on this snipit, connection all of the adolase, if the root problems of asperger-autism, mitochondrial diseases, mito genetic disorders, other degenerative genetic disorders and the increase of processed sugar and carbs are not all related.
that said, i seem to have trouble with carb metabolism in several tissue areas. i speculate at the " Fru 1,6-P2 and Fru 1-P stages of the catalytic process. I clearly can metabolize protein and fat without having the multi-systemic and increasingly debilitating symptoms i get with carb metabolism. so i asked my self what metabolic process do all carbs share/regardless of tissue, that protein and fat do not. this is where my problem must be. the seemingly strange characteristic of my problem with carb metabolism is that it has necessarily been progressive. I had some minor discomfort/difficulty in metabolism carbs since i can remember. These symptoms have gotten progressively worst over my lifetime. I cannot tolerate an accumulation of carbs in my physiology (to what micro-minimal level, i do not know). i believe it only takes days before i begin experiencing increase liver, kidney and blood pressure problems., other symptoms, temperature issues, diarrhea, muscular-skeleton, numbness etc come over increase accumulation.
What if my problem is a growing/progressive deficiency in Fru 1,6-P2 and Fru 1-P due to some rudimentary (undetectable with current genetic technology) deficiency in all 3 adolase. What if we are on the cusp, if not well into the inaugural stage of a genetic mutation pandemic fueled by processed sugar ingestion...?
Maximizing Your Body's Performance
By Ward Dean, MD and Jim English
Production and management of sustainable biological energy resources is of vital concern for everyone. Disruptions in the normal production of mitochondrial energy can contribute to a wide range of metabolic disturbances and symptoms, including fatigue, immune system dysfunction, dementia, depression, behavioral disturbances, attention deficiency, muscle weakness and pain, angina, heart disease, diabetes, skin rashes, and hair loss. These symptoms of metabolic impairment are also present in persons suffering from acquired diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS), and in those with inherited mitochondrial diseases, such as mitochondrial myopathy.
As these conditions share a common link in mechanisms of metabolic energy production, they may also benefit from nutritional strategies that optimize energy production and metabolic pathways.
The Krebs’ Cycle All cells must produce energy to survive. Hans A. Krebs first elucidated the process of cells converting food into energy, the Citric Acid Cycle, in 1937. Krebs proposed a specific metabolic pathway within the cells to account for the oxidation of the basic components of food – carbohydrates, protein and fats – w for energy. The Krebs’ cycle takes place inside the mitochondria or ‘power plant’ of cells and provides energy required for the organism to function.
Mitochondria are found in all cells in the human body, with the exception of mature red blood cells. The primary function of these tiny organelles (each cell contains between 500 and 2,000 mitochondria) is to convert energy found in nutrient molecules and store it in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP is the universal energy-yielding molecule used by enzymes to perform a wide range of cellular functions. Humans cannot survive, even for a second, without a constant supply of ATP.
In order to carry out energy conversion, mitochondria require oxygen. The purpose of our respiratory and circulatory systems is to deliver oxygen to the tissues for use by mitochondria, and to eliminate carbon dioxide. The consumption of oxygen by mitochondria is called cellular respiration.
In simple terms, the Krebs’ cycle metabolizes acetyl coenzyme A into citric acid and then runs through a complex series of biological oxidations, producing free hydrogen ions. A net of two molecules of ATP is created at this stage in the Krebs’ cycle. The hydrogen ions then enter a biochemical chain, known as oxidative phosphorylation, which is a highly efficient aerobic energy generator. Oxidative phosphorylation generates 36 molecules of ATP during a sequence of steps that combine hydrogen electrons to molecular oxygen to form water. Therefore, each molecule of citric acid that rotates through the Krebs’ cycle, generates 38 molecules of ATP for tissue fuel. (1)
There are different points where metabolites enter the Krebs’ cycle. Most of the products of protein, carbohydrates and fat metabolism are reduced to the molecule acetyl coenzyme A that enters the Krebs’ cycle. Glucose, the primary fuel in the body, is first metabolized into pyruvic acid and then into acetyl coenzyme A. The breakdown of the glucose molecule forms two molecules of ATP for energy in the Embden Meyerhof pathway process of glycolysis. On the other hand, amino acids and some chained fatty acids can be metabolized into Krebs intermediates and enter the cycle at several points.
When oxygen is unavailable or the Krebs’ cycle is inhibited, the body shifts its energy production from the Krebs’ cycle to the Embden Meyerhof pathway of glycolysis, a very inefficient way of making energy.
As well as producing far less energy, glycolysis also produces lactic acid as a byproduct. Increased lactic acid is a common acidotic condition that can be caused by a variety of metabolic problems. Accumulation of lactic acid in muscle tissue produces the pain and inflammation we experience after exercising. While untrained individuals have a low lactate threshold, highly trained, elite athletes are extremely efficient at converting lactate to glucose and therefore have lower lactate levels. (2,3)
so imagine, that for every cell in our bodies, this process is going on. that means every cell is affected by our ability or inability to break down glucose glycolysis or to make glucose, glucogenesis as well as to make and synthesize the stored form, glycogen.
from our neurology, to cardio-vascular, to skeletal-muscular, to our cognition, everything is effected by how much atp we are able to produce in sufficient time for demand. is it really a wonder, that in the current environment of the processed sugar-carb age, that debilitating autism traits are more prevalent, that degenerative disorders are more prevalent, chronic fatigue, non symptom fatal heart attacks, strokes among athletes and etc are all on the rise.?